Harvard to launch center for autism research Related Prime editing system offers wide range of versatility in human cells, correcting disease-causing genetic variations Genome editing with precision Created with $20M gift from K. Lisa Yang and Hock E. Tan, initiative aims to unravel the basic biology of autism and related disorders Technology to identify potential biological mechanisms underlying autism spectrum disorder has been developed by scientists at Harvard University, the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, and MIT.The “Perturb-Seq” method investigates the function of many different genes in many different cell types at once, in a living organism. Scientists applied the large-scale method to study dozens of genes that are associated with autism spectrum disorder, identifying how specific cell types in the developing mouse brain are impacted by mutations.Published in the journal Science, the method is also broadly applicable to other organs, enabling scientists to better understand a wide range of disease and normal processes.“For many years, genetic studies have identified a multitude of risk genes that are associated with the development of autism spectrum disorder,” said said co-senior author Paola Arlotta, the Golub Family Professor of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology at Harvard. “The challenge in the field has been to make the connection between knowing what the genes are, to understanding how the genes actually affect cells and ultimately behavior.“We applied the Perturb-Seq technology to an intact developing organism for the first time, showing the potential of measuring gene function at scale to better understand a complex disorder,” Arlotta explained.The study was also led by co-senior authors Aviv Regev, who was a core member of the Broad Institute during the study and is currently executive vice president of Genentech Research and Early Development, and Feng Zhang, a core member of the Broad Institute and an investigator at MIT’s McGovern Institute.To investigate gene function at a large scale, the researchers combined two powerful genomic technologies. They used CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing to make precise changes, or perturbations, in 35 different genes linked to autism spectrum disorder risk. Then, they analyzed changes in the developing mouse brain using single-cell RNA sequencing, which allowed them to see how gene expression changed in over 40,000 individual cells.By looking at the level of individual cells, the researchers could compare how the risk genes affected different cell types in the cortex — the part of the brain responsible for complex functions including cognition and sensation. They analyzed networks of risk genes together to find common effects.“We found that both neurons and glia — the non-neuronal cells in the brain — are directly affected by different sets of these risk genes,” said Xin Jin, lead author of the study and a Junior Fellow of the Harvard Society of Fellows. “Genes and molecules don’t generate cognition per se — they need to impact specific cell types in the brain to do so. We are interested in understanding how these different cell types can contribute to the disorder.”To get a sense of the model’s potential relevance to the disorder in humans, the researchers compared their results to data from post-mortem human brains. In general, they found that in the post-mortem human brains with autism spectrum disorder, some of the key genes with altered expression were also affected in the Perturb-seq data.“We now have a really rich dataset that allows us to draw insights, and we’re still learning a lot about it every day,” Jin said. “As we move forward with studying disease mechanisms in more depth, we can focus on the cell types that may be really important.” “The field has been limited by the sheer time and effort that it takes to make one model at a time to test the function of single genes. Now, we have shown the potential of studying gene function in a developing organism in a scalable way, which is an exciting first step to understanding the mechanisms that lead to autism spectrum disorder and other complex psychiatric conditions, and to eventually develop treatments for these devastating conditions,” said Arlotta, who is also an institute member of the Broad Institute and part of the Broad’s Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research. “Our work also paves the way for Perturb-Seq to be applied to organs beyond the brain, to enable scientists to better understand the development or function of different tissue types, as well as pathological conditions.”“Through genome sequencing efforts, a very large number of genes have been identified that, when mutated, are associated with human diseases. Traditionally, understanding the role of these genes would involve in-depth studies of each gene individually. By developing Perturb-seq for in vivo applications, we can start to screen all of these genes in animal models in a much more efficient manner, enabling us to understand mechanistically how mutations in these genes can lead to disease,” said Zhang, who is also the James and Patricia Poitras Professor of Neuroscience at MIT and a professor of brain and cognitive sciences and biological engineering at MIT.This research was supported by the Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research at the Broad Institute, the National Institutes of Health, the Brain and Behavior Research Foundation’s NARSAD Young Investigator Grant, Harvard University’s William F. Milton Fund, the Klarman Cell Observatory, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, a Center for Cell Circuits grant from the National Human Genome Research Institute’s Centers of Excellence in Genomic Science, the New York Stem Cell Foundation, the Mathers Foundation, the Poitras Center for Affective Disorders Research at MIT, the Hock E. Tan and K. Lisa Yang Center for Autism Research at MIT, and J. and P. Poitras.
India’s Renewable Energy Capacity Tops 70 GW FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailPrint分享The Economic Times:India added 269.64 MW of renewable energy capacity last month taking the total grid connected clean energy capacity to 70,053.81 MW as of April 30, a government report has said.According to the report by the ministry of new and renewable energy, India [has] 34,165 MW of wind energy, 21,885.1 MW solar energy including rooftop solar, 4,489.80 MW small hydro (of up to 25 MW) and 8,700.80 MW biomass (bagasse) cogeneration as of April 30.The nation also witnessed 674.81 MW of biomass (non-bagasse) cogeneration)/captive power and 138.30 Waste to Power till April 30.India also installed off grid clean energy of 40 MW in April taking the total installed capacity in this segment to 1046.93 MW at April end this year.India has set and ambitious target of having 175 GW of renewable energy capacity including 100 GW of solar and 60 GW of wind energy by 2022. More: Grid Connected Clean Energy Capacity Reaches 70 GW in April read more
43SHARESShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblr,Judy Hoberman Men and women sell, manage, recruit and supervise differently. Judy Hoberman, creator of “Selling in a Skirt”, shares essential insights about gender differences and how to embrace and use those … Web: www.sellinginaskirt.com Details Some people think that dreaming big means you think too highly of yourself—that big dreams signal you are arrogant or perhaps directionless. But in truth, having big dreams means you are determined to live on purpose, are nurturing a vision, and are taking steps to make it happen. I encourage you to dream big. Otherwise, you will wake up to something smaller.Imagine how different your life would be if you actively pursued even a few of the dreams you had when you were little. Life was simpler then, and dreaming was something we all did and were not afraid to share. As we grow up, some of us abandon our dreams while others stop dreaming altogether. It all comes back to your mindset. Allowing yourself to be inspired and encouraged by your dreams can prompt you to set goals and establish an implementable plan of action. If you believe you can accomplish those big dreams, why not go after them? Why settle for the small ones instead?I cannot imagine a world without dreamers. Without them, we would not have the things we take for granted like cars, phones, lights, airplanes, computers, and the ability to connect globally. Take a jog outside your comfort zone and surround yourself with other dreamers. Support each other.Mentors can play a huge role in turning your dreams into reality. My mentors have helped me tremendously, and I am privileged to mentor others. What should you look for in a mentor? Someone who has expertise in your chosen area, wants to help you succeed, and will help you get there. In addition to listening to and guiding you, mentors will celebrate your successes with you and help you make adjustments when things go astray, which is inevitable when venturing into new terrain. Personally, I have started and re-started so many times that I cannot even remember all the chances I have taken along the way. Here are some of the biggies:I started a new career in the insurance industry at the age of forty knowing nothing about that particular industryI came through the ranks of insurance agents as one of the only womenI became an agency manager without ever having formal training or mentoringOur agency had no presence in North Carolina, and I was asked to build an agency there. For nearly a year, I travelled each week from Connecticut to North Carolina to establish an agency before moving there. Two years later I was asked to move to Dallas to take a corporate position building sales training, not knowing a soul there. I resigned from that big position to jump into the unknown again. I started my company, Selling In A Skirt, at the age of fifty-five and branched waaaay outside my comfort zone. If I could do it all over, would I do it differently? No. Did I make mistakes? Definitely. Were the risks worth the rewards? Absolutely! Women in leadership have many qualities that are inherent and may or may not be seen by others as important. Taking a big step for you and others takes courage and giving back to others through mentoring and time, takes generosity; two very important leadership qualities.I am passionate about women starting out in the work environment. Mentoring young women has been a tremendous pleasure and honor for me. At one point a few years ago, I was officially and unofficially mentoring four women simultaneously. You may be thinking that it was a lot of work, but showing them the ropes not only helped me remember some things I took for granted, it also led me back to some of the basics I forgot. It was a win-win situation all the way around.One of my greatest joys is giving with the pure intention of giving by paying it forward. Now make no mistake, my company is a for-profit company and I have bills to pay like everyone else, but I always make time to pay it forward and mentor young women.For much of my career, I was either the only woman or one of the only women in the room. I launched my company to support women, particularly those working in male-dominated fields. I wanted to show women how to succeed in business without sacrificing their values or attributes. I wanted them to understand we inherently have amazing feminine qualities that can propel us forward in business … if we use them correctly.While mentoring young women naturally complements my work at Selling In A Skirt, I mentored women for many years before launching this business. Each of the young women I have mentored throughout my career just needed a little help. Some may have needed it for a longer period of time than others, but in truth, what they all most needed was someone who cared. Someone to help them get a leg up without judging their mistakes, and someone who believed in them when maybe they felt like no one else did.A mentor offers perspective, insight, and encouragement. Mentors give their mentees the benefit of their education and experience to help develop the mentees’ skills and abilities. Both parties need to want to be in this partnership and must feel free to ask each other questions and challenge one another. By no means is it necessary that they agree on everything. This is how we all learn, and each relationship is unique. If you have mentored more than one person, you know firsthand how different each mentoring experience can be. Ideally your mentee will go on to mentor someone else, and the cycle of paying it forward will continue. Mentors learn more than they might expect, and the experience is priceless. Remember, as a mentor, you probably have been there, done that and can share both your successes and lessons learned. You will probably see things in your mentee that they don’t even see in themselves…at least not yet. And, you can help them navigate that twisty-turny journey that you successfully did while also sharing in some pretty important connections for your mentees. Did you know that 65% of women who are mentored, become mentors? Trust me, no one expects a mentor to do all the work…you are helping to shorten the learning curve a little bit. Your generosity will be acknowledged and appreciated and you will benefit from the experience more than you would have or could have imagined. When you hear “You’ve changed my life” you will know exactly what I’m talking about.“A lot of people have gone further than they thought they could because someone else thought they could.” Unknown read more