Diatoms: A Case Study in Darwinian Explanation

first_imgSome of the most beautiful, elegant, and vital organisms on earth demand a better explanation than ‘stuff happens over and over.’Your life depends on tiny glass architectures that were not even visible until the invention of the microscope, except in vast numbers in certain geological formations. These creatures are microscopic algae called diatoms. There are 100,000 species of diatoms, says an open-access paper in Nature Scientific Advances, distinguished by the exquisite glass ‘houses’ they build. The eight authors of this paper now have demonstrated that the glass structures called frustules, that fit together like two sides of a pill box, actually protect the cells’ DNA from damage by ultraviolet light.….Diatoms are single photosynthetic algal cells populating the oceans and waters around the globe. They generate a considerable fraction (20–30%) of all oxygen from photosynthesis, and 45% of total primary production of organic material in the sea. There are more than 100,000 species of diatoms, classified by the shape of the glass cage in which they live, and which they build during algal growth. These glass structures have accumulated for the last 100 million of years, and left rich deposits of nano/microstructured silicon oxide in the form of diatomaceous earth around the globe. Here we show that reflection of ultraviolet light by nanostructured silica can protect the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in the algal cells….We saved the opening and closing of that paragraph for consideration separately. So far, we have learned that these are absolutely vital to the health of the biosphere. We’ve read that there is a tremendous variety of them. We’ve learned they exist in vast numbers, forming thick deposits of diatomaceous earth, even though the date of 100 million Darwin Years we would dispute. New to this paper, we’ve seen that the glass has a function of protecting the cells’ DNA from UV light.Now, let’s supply the opening and closing:The evolutionary causes for generation of nano and microstructured silica by photosynthetic algae are not yet deciphered….  Here we show that reflection of ultraviolet light by nanostructured silica can protect the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in the algal cells, and that this may be an evolutionary cause for the formation of glass cages.Diatoms (Mark Armitage)Surely the eight Darwinian biologists can demonstrate the evolution, can’t they? An investigation of the paper says, ‘No.’ First, we learn that evolutionists have puzzled over this question for over a century since the fraud Haeckel illustrated some of them.Since the time of Ernst Haeckels elegant illustrations of diatoms in his Kunstformen der Natur, the evolutionary causes for the existence of the nanostructured glass cages, frustules, confining diatoms have been discussed. Special proteins, the silaffins and cingulins, extract silicates from water and build the frustules along a chitin-based scaffolding network in geometries specific for different species. The open structure allows material transport but with some limitations; therefore, filtering has been suggested as a reason for their existence. It has also been suggested that the frustule gives mechanical protection from predators; experiments have verified that mechanical strength can be improved.Some of the causes that have been suggested sound like intelligent design:In more recent times, it was noted that the somewhat periodic 10–100 nm patterns of holes, slits and ribs, are reminiscent of the geometries of photonic bandgap structures…. It has also been noted that the frustules may act as small spectrographs, focusing photons into specific volumes inside the diatom, possibly for absorption in chlorophyll and other chromophores.Others have hypothesized that the frustules are lenses, or act as photonic structures. These authors focus on a different view: “Protection from UVR may be a reason for the evolution of frustules.” If they had simply said, “A reason for the frustules,” nobody would likely dispute the suggestion. The scientists do, in fact, establish that the shells are good at filtering out UV light. But can the Stuff Happens Law suffice as a cause for them?Diatoms (Mark Armitage)In their Conclusion, the Darwinians add to the fallacy by saying that stuff happens repeatedly:We suggest that the redistribution of UVR due to SiO2 frustules is an important evolutionary cause of the presence and evolution of frustules in diatoms, by decreasing the rate of UVR-induced degradation of DNA inside the cells. This will improve the energy budget for the photosynthesizing cell, as well as reduce mutations. These weak effects may be sufficient to help explain the surprising number of different diatom species with varying geometries generated by convergent evolution.A basic course in philosophy of science should render such statements illogical. First of all, evolution is causeless, so “evolutionary cause” collapses to a sophoxymoronic phrase. Darwinian evolution is by definition unguided, aimless, and purposeless. One cannot look at existing function and say evolution “caused” it, any more than one can say an “accident caused” a golf ball to land in a hole without a golfer. Causation implies direction that is predictable. If evolution had been the predictable cause in the case of diatoms, then why didn’t all microbes, cells and plankton evolve glass houses?Also illogical is the notion that evolution caused diatoms to reduce mutations. In neo-Darwinian theory, mutation is the seed-plot of innovation. Reducing mutations would seal the fate of diatom evolutionary progress, leaving the first glass-protected species unchanged for millions of Darwin Years, not diversifying into 100,000 species. One would expect a single species locked in its un-evolving genome, or degrading and going extinct by other means of DNA decay besides UV light.Finally, “convergent evolution” (Darwin Flubber) is not a cause able to generate anything. It’s an empty after-the-fact phrase that assumes evolution (circular reasoning). And even if it were a ’cause’ able to generate new species, why would it generate varying geometries? The geometry of a diatom frustule has little or nothing to do with UV protection; otherwise, the best UV protecting geometry would flourish, and the others would go extinct. The 100,000 vibrant species demonstrate that almost any geometry is successful at UV protection.The authors, therefore, have explained nothing about diatom ‘evolution.’ They have only exposed the sad truth that vacuous ‘explanations’ can still get published in the world’s most prestigious journals.We’ve got to stop them. Darwinians are leading the public down the primrose path to stupidity, pretending to explain things by cause and effect, when actually embracing the opposite of causation (“stuff happens”). Their bad storytelling habit is bad for science in many ways. Here are two of them: (1) it misleads the public into thinking that Darwinism ‘explains’ everything in nature, when it explains it away with hot air, and worse (2), it distracts attention from the really important aspects of diatoms: the exquisite beauty, wonder, and variety of some of God’s most elegant creations that not only serve the biosphere but showcase His glory and creative genius. We’ll keep quoting Romans 1:19-22 till these pseudoscientists see their reflections in its mirror: For what can be known about God is plain to them, because God has shown it to them. For his invisible attributes, namely, his eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly perceived, ever since the creation of the world, in the things that have been made. So they are without excuse. For although they knew God, they did not honor him as God or give thanks to him, but they became futile in their thinking, and their foolish hearts were darkened. Claiming to be wise, they became fools….There’s causation and explanation for you. (Visited 1,008 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

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Tax break for inner city upgrades

first_img18 October 2004The National Treasury has launched an urban renewal tax incentive to encourage the refurbishment and construction of commercial and residential properties in South Africa’s 16 major cities.The incentive translates into considerable financial benefits for investors, especially for refurbishing existing buildings. Companies that redevelop buildings in the country’s inner cities will get a 20% tax deduction from all income earned in the first five years after a building has been refurbished.Companies that develop new buildings will get a 20% tax deduction in the first year the building earns an income, plus an annual depreciation of 5% for the next 16 years. Urban renewal tax incentive: guide for investors This incentive supports other initiatives, such as policies to write off existing bad debt from inner city buildings in order to allow for these buildings to be sold, restored and refurbished.The incentive will also encourage investment in affordable inner city rental housing, as well as provides a catalyst for public-private partnerships in mixed-used developments that provide social facilities integrated into new commercial and residential developments.The incentive scheme will eventually apply to developments undertaken in 16 identified municipalities:Buffalo City (East London), Eastern CapeCape Town, Western CapeEkurhuleni (East Rand), GautengEmalahleni (Witbank), MpumalangaEmfuleni (Vaal Triangle), Free StateeThekwini (Durban), KwaZulu-NatalJohannesburg, GautengMafikeng, North WestMangaung (Bloemfontein), Free StateMatjhabeng (Welkom), Free StateMbombela (Nelspruit), MpumalangaMsunduzi (Pietermaritzburg), KwaZulu-NatalNelson Mandela (Port Elizabeth), East LondonPolokwane (Pietersburg), LimpopoSol Plaatje (Kimberley), Northern CapeTshwane (Pretoria), GautengThe Johannesburg and Cape Town incentive scheme took effect from 14 October, with the Durban scheme expected to be gazetted by the end of 2004.The Treasury has also already received applications for the scheme from the Tshwane, Emfuleni, and Sol Plaatje municipalities.Johannesburg’s approved urban development zones include the central business district, Newtown and Braamfontein, as well as the high-density high-rise residential areas of Hillbrow and Berea.Other lower-density residential areas surrounding Johannesburg’s Ellis Park area, such as Bertrams, Judith’s Paarl, Doornfontein and Troyeville, as well as Bellevue, Bellevue East and Yeoville, are also included. The manufacturing and industrial strip to the north of the M2 East/West, from Benrose in the east to City West in the west, also fall under the city’s approved urban development zones. Johannesburg UDZ map Cape Town has two urban development zones. Most of the historic Cape Town central business district is included, as are properties adjacent to the Main Road and Klipfontein Road Corridors. This includes portions of the suburbs of Salt River, Woodstock, Observatoy, Maitland, Mowbray, Athlone and Gatesville. Cape Town UDZ map Cape Town’s second urban development zone includes the older part of the Bellville central business district, focusing on land adjacent to the Voortrekker Road Corridor and around Bellville Station. Some properties along Modderdam Road and Kasselsvlei Road are also included. Belville UDZ map The proposed urban development zone for eThekwini/Durban includes parts of Walter Gilbert Road, Bell Road, Shepstone Road, Bay Terrace, Victoria Embankment, Alexandra, Brook Streets, West Street, Berea Road, Carters Ave, Canongate Road, Warwick Ave, Centenary Road, Carlisle Road, First Ave, Stamford Hill Road, Croydon Road. Walter Gilbert Road, Cobham Road, Old Fort Road, NMR Ave, Somtseu Ave, Stanger Str, Argyle Road, and NMR Ave until Walter Gilbert Rd. Proposed Durban UDZ map SouthAfrica.info reporterlast_img read more

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42nd Annual Dorset Sale

first_imgShare Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest Plans for the 42nd Annual Ohio Dorset Sale have been set for March 16 and 17 at the Preble County Fairgrounds in Eaton. Billed as “the first, the biggest, the best” Dorset sale, it will feature both Horned and Polled Dorsets. Dorsets from South Dakota to Connecticut have been entered.Established in 1977, the Ohio Dorset Sale has been a barometer used to gauge how the registered sheep industry is doing in the New Year. Entered in the sale are 94 head of Polled Dorsets and 40 head of Horned Dorsets.“The nation’s finest Dorset genetics from ten different states have been consigned to this year’s sale,” said sale manager Greg Deakin, Cuba, Ill. “The sale’s history is rich, dating back to 1977. More national breed champion rams and ewes have sold through the Ohio Dorset Sale than any other sale.”Both Horned and Polled Dorset rams and ewes will be offered consisting of classes for yearlings, fall and winter lambs. Serving as judge is Steve Reid from Houstonia, Mo., and sale auctioneers are Gary Saylor and Danny Westlake, both from Ohio. The Ohio Dorset Association is sponsoring the sale and consignment viewing may be seen at www.bannersheepmagazine.com.Sale questions may be directed to sale manager Greg Deakin, 309-785-5058.last_img read more

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RIM Refreshes BlackBerry Enterprise Server Ahead Of BB 10 Launch

first_imgResearch In Motion is getting all of its ducks in a row ahead of its BlackBerry 10 announcement later this month. It has refreshed and renamed its app store, BlackBerry World, attained FIPS 140-2 certification for BB 10 and released a technical preview of BB 10 for enterprises and government. RIM is now releasing what is likely to be the last domino in the chain with an update of its BlackBerry Enterprise Server 10. The BlackBerry Enterprise Server is the spine that RIM built its robust enterprise business on over the last decade. When times were bleakest, BES was likely the savior of RIM in the enterprise and government spaces. The BES 10 upgrade integrates many specific features related to BlackBerry 10. BlackBerry Balance – The ability to keep work data and personal data separate on employees BlackBerry 10 and PlayBook devices“Behind the firewall” – Secure access to corporate email and connectivity to applications and dataBlackBerry World For Work – Corporate application front for BlackBerry apps in the enterpriseNew management controlsSupport for iOS and AndroidBreaking Down BES 10When you break it down to its constituent parts, BES 10 is not fundamentally different from RIM’s Mobile Fusion product announced at the end of 2011. Mobile Fusion, which was officially released in Spring 2012, brought the capability to manage iOS and Android devices from the BES environment.“BES 10 is all about solving the needs of the mobile enterprise,” Jeff Holleran, senior director of enterprise product management at RIM said in a video accompanying the BES 10 announcement. “As we’ve looked at the trends in the industry today, we’ve got end users bringing their own devices into an organization. As an end user bring a different device in, that organization wants to be able to support that device no matter what the manufacturer is.”BES 10 software is available for upgrade (along with a 60-day free trial) through RIM’s website. BES 10 has already received FIPS 140-2 certification, which once again shows that RIM is working behind the curve for the launch of its products. FIPS certification often takes between four and six months through the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Most products seeking FIPS certification are released to the enterprise and consumer market first, then given to NIST for review. The timing shows that RIM was ready with most of the technology stack that will encompass the full BlackBerry 10 launch in the middle of 2012. RIM’s core BES product has come under fire from competition over recent years as the “bring your own device” trend of employees bringing their own smartphones to work has given birth to a robust mobile device and application management (MDM/MAM) industry. Samsung, Google (through Motorola’s 3LM), IBM, SAP and a host of startups have all come calling to take a piece of the BES market share. Samsung in particular would love to close in on RIM’s enterprise space and has partnered with a long list of top companies in the enterprise security space such as BoxTone, Good Technology, Fiberlink Communications, Symantec, VMWare and others.  Is your organization still using the BlackBerry Enterprise Server? Do you plan to upgrade to BES 10? Let us know in the comments.  dan rowinski Why IoT Apps are Eating Device Interfaces Tags:#BlackBerry#Research In Motion#security Role of Mobile App Analytics In-App Engagementcenter_img Related Posts What it Takes to Build a Highly Secure FinTech … The Rise and Rise of Mobile Payment Technologylast_img read more

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What are the unique requirements of public VR?

first_imgSmall Business Cybersecurity Threats and How to… Tags:#Internet of Things#IoT#public VR#virtual reality#VR Internet of Things Makes it Easier to Steal You… Related Posts Why IoT Apps are Eating Device Interfacescenter_img Yuval Boger A good treadmill for home use costs around $1,000. A treadmill for use in a health club could be ten times more expensive. Why would club owners agree to pay so much more? Because they understand that the home equipment would not withstand the heavy use in a club.The same is true for VR goggles. Goggles for home use are not suitable for sustained use in arcades and amusement parks. Both VR vendors and attraction operators need to understand and address these differences.Durability is one key issue. A goggle in an amusement park is subject to both accidental and intentional abuse. A kid might try to see if a lens can pop out. Someone else might wish to take a component as a souvenir.See also: How VR training apps are becoming realityHygiene is also important. VR experiences can be intense, and parks can be in hot and humid areas. Whether it is sweat, suntan lotion or something else, a guest does not wish to wear a soaked or dirty goggle. This is true not only for the face mask, but for any built-in headphones.Sweat and humidity might also cause fogging on the lenses. If a guest has to take off the goggles to defog them, the break in VR immersion degrades the experience.Depending on the attraction, visitors can be of all ages. Good physical fit is important, regardless if the visitor is a small kit or a large man. Goggles must accommodate a wide range of head sizes, and eye separation. Eyeglasses also present a design challenge. Visitors prefer to keep them on, so goggle vendors try to make room for them.Beyond the customer-facing experience, there are important operational considerations. Attractions make money by providing a unique experience to a large number of visitors. Every minute spent by a guest adjusting straps in a roller-coaster, is a minute lost. Some have reported a 30% decrease in guest throughput after upgrading a roller coaster to VR. A larger park crew assisting guests or maintaining headsets means larger operational costs.There are several different types of public VR experiences, each with unique challenge. A free-roam experience (e.g. Zero Latency) needs to address backpack PCs and controllers. Themed experiences such as The Void have accessories that supplant the story. These accessories have many of the same challenges. A small attraction in a shopping mall cannot afford a large operating crew. A VR roller coaster might need a chin strap to keep the goggles on the head. If a VR roller coaster relies on standard phones, they might overheat or need to recharge often.Often, the first instinct of those building VR attractions is to do everything. They might try to build their own goggles, create content, or even a tracking system. Over time, they focus on their core competencies, bringing external vendors for everything else.Testing is a work in progressThe first generation of these solutions show the immense promise of public VR.VR Coaster, for instance, has deployed GearVR-based roller coaster experiences in over 20 parks. These use a special tracking system to determine the position of each car at any time. The Void and Zero Latency use backpack PCs to allow guests to explore unique spaces. Talon Simulations provides flight and driving simulations in malls. IMAX opened a VR center where guests can try a variety of 10-minute VR experiences. Most of these first-generation solutions use consumer-grade hardware.Operators realize that many problems still need solutions. At the same time, consumers learn what they like and dislike in current solutions.HMD vendors are also rising to the challenge. ImmersiON-VRelia has developed phone-based goggles that feature a reinforced plastic construction. Sensics released goggles with detachable face mask to address both hygiene and operational efficiency.What’s missing? Low-latency wireless video solutions to get rid of cables. Faster ways to adjust goggles for guest. Better methods to clean goggles between guests. Phones that don’t overheat. Multi-user experiences with a stronger social aspect. The passage of time to see what works and what doesn’t. VR standards to help integrate new devices into compelling experiences.I am excited what public VR experiences could be. My excitement comes both from a user standpoint – these experiences are fun! – and also from a problem-solver view – the problems are challenging.Try these experiences next time you can. Going to a movie theater provides a different experience than watching at home. Going through a good public VR experience is beyond what VR at home provides.This article is part of our Virtual Reality series. You can download a high-resolution version of the landscape featuring 431 companies here. Follow the Pucklast_img read more

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10 months agoSteven Sessegnon delighted with new Fulham contract

first_imgTagsTransfersAbout the authorChris BeattieShare the loveHave your say Steven Sessegnon delighted with new Fulham contractby Chris Beattie10 months agoSend to a friendShare the loveSteven Sessegnon has signed a new deal with Fulham.The 18-year-old has agreed a deal which keeps him at Craven Cottage until the summer of 2022, with a Club option to extend by a further 12 months.Having come through the Academy since joining as an Under-9 alongside twin brother Ryan, Steven penned his first professional contract with Fulham last summer.“It feels very good,” Sessegnon told fulhamfc.com. “It’s something I’ve been working towards for the last few months and it feels amazing to get it done and over the line.“You could say the first [pro deal] was very special but this one has shown all the hard work I’ve done personally, not just with this Club but with international success as well. It is rewarding helping contribute to the progression of Fulham.“This can only motivate me to keep working harder. I will carry on doing as I am and keep on heading towards the next one.“Hopefully I can make my league debut very soon, but over time I need to keep working hard and knuckling down and see what happens.“You can’t rush this sort of thing. I’m going to take my chance, whenever it might come.“The Millwall game in the Carabao Cup was a great feeling for me. That was something I’m not used to, but one that will push me on, and spur me on in the future to achieve great things.” last_img read more

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10 months agoTottenham attacker Son: Only bad luck stopping trophy push

first_imgTottenham attacker Son: Only bad luck stopping trophy pushby Paul Vegas10 months agoSend to a friendShare the loveTottenham attacker Heung-Min Son says they deserve to win a trophy this season.The South Korean – who has now scored 10 goals in his last 10 games – believes all Tottenham need is a change in fortune to land their first silverware under Mauricio Pochettino.”We are just a bit unlucky for me, to be honest,” he said. “We are close all the time.”People are thinking ‘ahhh it’s Spurs’, but we believe, always this team believe in the title, but sometimes you just have to have luck, with a long season.”We can win, we deserve to win. The players deserve to win something.”Of course the pressure is going to be big [to win the title] but we have to just enjoy and bring positive energy, this is the most important.” About the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your saylast_img read more

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a month agoNapoli goalscorer Llorente: I really wanted to face Liverpool

first_imgNapoli goalscorer Llorente: I really wanted to face Liverpoolby Paul Vegasa month agoSend to a friendShare the loveNapoli striker Fernando Llorente was delighted to score in victory over Champions League opponents Liverpool.Llorente was part of the Tottenham team beaten by the Reds in last season’s final.The veteran said: “I wanted to play against the Reds, I’m happy because we showed we could live with the big names. These three points are very important, but it’s just the first game: we still need a lot. “We have to think about game after game, it will be hard. “Scoring at the San Paolo is something incredible, I didn’t imagine starting this adventure like this.” About the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your saylast_img read more

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Commentary Why doesnt Ohio State basketball do midnight madness

Remember the video of Ohio State men’s basketball players Aaron Craft, Jon Diebler and Jared Sullinger singing Miley Cyrus’ “Party in the U.S.A?” Do you wish you could see those three sing the song live? If the OSU men’s basketball team had a midnight madness, that performance could happen. Started by Charles “Lefty” Driesell at the University of Maryland, midnight madness is currently a major part of the college basketball world, and it took place last Friday night. Driesell came up with the idea in 1971 to have his Terrapins’ first practice of the season at the earliest possible time that the NCAA would allow: midnight. Schools across the country have since adopted that idea, with the midnight practice now transforming into more of a preseason party hosted by the basketball team than work on the court. Students, alumni and fans gather at a teams’ arena to see their program introduce that year’s team. Different schools do different things, but the event usually involves the team performing a song or dance, the head coach giving a speech, and an intrasquad scrimmage. This year, Connecticut had a dunk contest, Syracuse got Carmelo Anthony to show up and interact with the crowd, and Maryland had an alumni scrimmage featuring some of their current and former NBA players. Nonathlete celebrities show up for the madness as well. Rapper Wale performed at Georgetown’s event last season, and 50 Cent appeared at Villanova’s five years ago. Basically, all the big-time programs have some form of a season tip-off event highlighted by entertaining performances and all-star game-type defense scrimmages. Except for the Buckeyes. It’s not as if OSU doesn’t have a big enough basketball program to host such an event. Two 30-win seasons and a national title game appearance in the last five years, along with an anticipated top-five team this year puts the Buckeyes among the nation’s top teams. Why not celebrate something that OSU does well? With the current state of the football program, the men’s basketball team should be the pride of the athletic department. Hosting an event that takes attention away from the football team and focusing it onto a basketball program that has done nothing but win and represent the school well in recent years needs to happen. The possibilities for the event are endless. A scrimmage between players, both former and current, would certainly entertain. Who wouldn’t want to see Sullinger posting up Greg Oden or William Buford trying to shake Evan Turner? Ohio natives Kid Cudi, Bow Wow, or Chip tha Ripper could perform. If those three aren’t available, I’m sure the crowd wouldn’t mind being serenaded by the voices of Craft and Sullinger. Who knows, maybe known Buckeye fan Lebron James would show up. Either way, OSU is missing out on a big part of the college basketball world, and it’s time for change. read more

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The UCL and Real Madrid are inseparable says Solari

first_imgLos Blancos boss Santiago Solari believes the European competition is part of the club’s history and go hand by handReal Madrid and Viktoria Plzen will face off tomorrow night in the UEFA Champions League.And for interim manager Santiago Solari, Los Blancos and the European tournament go together.“It’s always very nice, this competition, which is linked to the history of our club, inseparable,” said Solari according to Goal.Jose Mourinho, Lionel MessiMourinho: “Lionel Messi made me a better coach” Andrew Smyth – September 14, 2019 Jose Mourinho believes the experience of going up against Barcelona superstar Lionel Messi at Real Madrid made him a greater coach.“When we hear the Champions League anthem, we all get excited. It’s fantastic to be back in this competition. This is my third game in this role, so I’m very happy that I get a chance [in the Champions League]. I enjoyed it a lot as a player.”“When you look for a solution to a problem in football, it’s never just one thing, it’s step by step,” he added.“We’ve taken two steps, two games. We had to play well to win them, you don’t win games without doing things well, and they were tough games.”“We did a lot of good things in these two games and we have to do what we did well again, but also improve what we didn’t do well. Every team can always improve,” he commented.last_img read more

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