Diatoms: A Case Study in Darwinian Explanation

first_imgSome of the most beautiful, elegant, and vital organisms on earth demand a better explanation than ‘stuff happens over and over.’Your life depends on tiny glass architectures that were not even visible until the invention of the microscope, except in vast numbers in certain geological formations. These creatures are microscopic algae called diatoms. There are 100,000 species of diatoms, says an open-access paper in Nature Scientific Advances, distinguished by the exquisite glass ‘houses’ they build. The eight authors of this paper now have demonstrated that the glass structures called frustules, that fit together like two sides of a pill box, actually protect the cells’ DNA from damage by ultraviolet light.….Diatoms are single photosynthetic algal cells populating the oceans and waters around the globe. They generate a considerable fraction (20–30%) of all oxygen from photosynthesis, and 45% of total primary production of organic material in the sea. There are more than 100,000 species of diatoms, classified by the shape of the glass cage in which they live, and which they build during algal growth. These glass structures have accumulated for the last 100 million of years, and left rich deposits of nano/microstructured silicon oxide in the form of diatomaceous earth around the globe. Here we show that reflection of ultraviolet light by nanostructured silica can protect the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in the algal cells….We saved the opening and closing of that paragraph for consideration separately. So far, we have learned that these are absolutely vital to the health of the biosphere. We’ve read that there is a tremendous variety of them. We’ve learned they exist in vast numbers, forming thick deposits of diatomaceous earth, even though the date of 100 million Darwin Years we would dispute. New to this paper, we’ve seen that the glass has a function of protecting the cells’ DNA from UV light.Now, let’s supply the opening and closing:The evolutionary causes for generation of nano and microstructured silica by photosynthetic algae are not yet deciphered….  Here we show that reflection of ultraviolet light by nanostructured silica can protect the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in the algal cells, and that this may be an evolutionary cause for the formation of glass cages.Diatoms (Mark Armitage)Surely the eight Darwinian biologists can demonstrate the evolution, can’t they? An investigation of the paper says, ‘No.’ First, we learn that evolutionists have puzzled over this question for over a century since the fraud Haeckel illustrated some of them.Since the time of Ernst Haeckels elegant illustrations of diatoms in his Kunstformen der Natur, the evolutionary causes for the existence of the nanostructured glass cages, frustules, confining diatoms have been discussed. Special proteins, the silaffins and cingulins, extract silicates from water and build the frustules along a chitin-based scaffolding network in geometries specific for different species. The open structure allows material transport but with some limitations; therefore, filtering has been suggested as a reason for their existence. It has also been suggested that the frustule gives mechanical protection from predators; experiments have verified that mechanical strength can be improved.Some of the causes that have been suggested sound like intelligent design:In more recent times, it was noted that the somewhat periodic 10–100 nm patterns of holes, slits and ribs, are reminiscent of the geometries of photonic bandgap structures…. It has also been noted that the frustules may act as small spectrographs, focusing photons into specific volumes inside the diatom, possibly for absorption in chlorophyll and other chromophores.Others have hypothesized that the frustules are lenses, or act as photonic structures. These authors focus on a different view: “Protection from UVR may be a reason for the evolution of frustules.” If they had simply said, “A reason for the frustules,” nobody would likely dispute the suggestion. The scientists do, in fact, establish that the shells are good at filtering out UV light. But can the Stuff Happens Law suffice as a cause for them?Diatoms (Mark Armitage)In their Conclusion, the Darwinians add to the fallacy by saying that stuff happens repeatedly:We suggest that the redistribution of UVR due to SiO2 frustules is an important evolutionary cause of the presence and evolution of frustules in diatoms, by decreasing the rate of UVR-induced degradation of DNA inside the cells. This will improve the energy budget for the photosynthesizing cell, as well as reduce mutations. These weak effects may be sufficient to help explain the surprising number of different diatom species with varying geometries generated by convergent evolution.A basic course in philosophy of science should render such statements illogical. First of all, evolution is causeless, so “evolutionary cause” collapses to a sophoxymoronic phrase. Darwinian evolution is by definition unguided, aimless, and purposeless. One cannot look at existing function and say evolution “caused” it, any more than one can say an “accident caused” a golf ball to land in a hole without a golfer. Causation implies direction that is predictable. If evolution had been the predictable cause in the case of diatoms, then why didn’t all microbes, cells and plankton evolve glass houses?Also illogical is the notion that evolution caused diatoms to reduce mutations. In neo-Darwinian theory, mutation is the seed-plot of innovation. Reducing mutations would seal the fate of diatom evolutionary progress, leaving the first glass-protected species unchanged for millions of Darwin Years, not diversifying into 100,000 species. One would expect a single species locked in its un-evolving genome, or degrading and going extinct by other means of DNA decay besides UV light.Finally, “convergent evolution” (Darwin Flubber) is not a cause able to generate anything. It’s an empty after-the-fact phrase that assumes evolution (circular reasoning). And even if it were a ’cause’ able to generate new species, why would it generate varying geometries? The geometry of a diatom frustule has little or nothing to do with UV protection; otherwise, the best UV protecting geometry would flourish, and the others would go extinct. The 100,000 vibrant species demonstrate that almost any geometry is successful at UV protection.The authors, therefore, have explained nothing about diatom ‘evolution.’ They have only exposed the sad truth that vacuous ‘explanations’ can still get published in the world’s most prestigious journals.We’ve got to stop them. Darwinians are leading the public down the primrose path to stupidity, pretending to explain things by cause and effect, when actually embracing the opposite of causation (“stuff happens”). Their bad storytelling habit is bad for science in many ways. Here are two of them: (1) it misleads the public into thinking that Darwinism ‘explains’ everything in nature, when it explains it away with hot air, and worse (2), it distracts attention from the really important aspects of diatoms: the exquisite beauty, wonder, and variety of some of God’s most elegant creations that not only serve the biosphere but showcase His glory and creative genius. We’ll keep quoting Romans 1:19-22 till these pseudoscientists see their reflections in its mirror: For what can be known about God is plain to them, because God has shown it to them. For his invisible attributes, namely, his eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly perceived, ever since the creation of the world, in the things that have been made. So they are without excuse. For although they knew God, they did not honor him as God or give thanks to him, but they became futile in their thinking, and their foolish hearts were darkened. Claiming to be wise, they became fools….There’s causation and explanation for you. (Visited 1,008 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

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Goa pulls the plug on late night parties

first_imgPanaji: The Goa Police on Friday said it is cracking down on late night parties and musical events which continue beyond the 10 p.m. deadline.The Director General of Police, Muktesh Chander, said, “Instructions about late night parties and music are already there; they cannot continue beyond 10 p.m. There are Supreme Court directions [which also stipulate] that loud music can not be played in open areas [beyond the deadline].”CM’s directiveHe said Chief Minister Manohar Parrikar has instructed the police to curb all illegal activities, like Matka gambling, prostitution, sexual abuse of women and children, and drug trade.The tourism and the hospitality industry of the State has been asking for an extension of the deadline, so that tourists can enjoy a better nightlife.‘Tourists spoil culture’Meanwhile, Goa Tourism Minister Manohar Ajgaonkar on Friday blamed tourists for spoiling the State’s culture and causing chaos by binge-drinking and merrymaking.Speaking to reporters on Friday, Mr. Ajgaonkar said liquor and music is part of the Goan culture, however, “Outsiders go berserk and create chaos after they drink. They ruin our culture, our Goenkarponn [Goanness].”He added, “Liquor and music is a part of our culture and it cannot be stopped just like that. Goans do not lose control when they drink alcohol. [People] would not even notice that a Goan is [under the influence]. He will not misbehave [after drinking], or show [that he is drunk].”last_img read more

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Patnaik revamps Odisha Cabinet; 12 new Ministers sworn-in

first_imgAs many as 12 Ministers, including 10 new, were sworn in when Odisha Chief Minister Naveen Patnaik carried out a major Cabinet reshuffle on Sunday. While six leaders were sworn in as new Cabinet Ministers and four took oath as new Ministers of State, two sitting Ministers of State were elevated and sworn in as Cabinet Ministers.The new Ministers were administered the oath of office and secrecy by Governor S.C. Jamir. The Chief Minister, many of his Ministers and other dignitaries attended the ceremony held at the Raj Bhavan here.The six who took oath as new Cabinet Ministers are Surjya Narayan Patro, Niranjan Pujari, Prafulla Samal, Maheswar Mohanty, Sashi Bhusan Behera and Pratap Jena. The four new Ministers of State who were administered oath are Nrusingha Charan Sahu, Ananta Das, Susanta Singh and Chandra Sarathi Behera.The two Ministers of State who were elevated to the rank of Cabinet Ministers and administered oath of office and secrecy are Prafulla Mallik and Ramesh Chandra Majhi. The portfolios are to be allocated to the new Ministers later in the day. The portfolios of many sitting Ministers are also likely to be changed, according to sources. This is Mr. Patnaik’s first Cabinet reshuffle since he took charge as Chief Minister for the fourth consecutive term in May, 2014.As many as 10 Ministers had resigned on Saturday to pave the way for the Cabinet reshuffle that Mr. Patnaik carried out to give new momentum to his government and revamp the Biju Janata Dal by engaging the leaders who quit as Ministers. Mr. Pujari, who was sworn in as Cabinet Minister, had resigned as Speaker on Friday. The post of Speaker is still lying vacant.last_img read more

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Pakistan violates ceasefire at 4 places in Poonch; targets army posts, villages

first_imgPakistani troops on Sunday resorted to unprovoked ceasefire violations targeting forward posts and villages at four places along the Line of Control (LoC) in Jammu and Kashmir’s Poonch district, officials said.The firing was intense in the Krishna Ghati sector, where the Pakistani troops resorted to mortar shelling and firing by small arms from around 04:30 a.m., which was retaliated befittingly by the Indian Army, a defence spokesman said. He said the cross-border shelling between the two sides continued till 07:30 a.m.. There was no report of any casualty on the Indian side, he said.Officials said firing and shelling by Pakistan were also reported from the Balnoi and Mankote (both in Mendhar sector), besides from Shahpur sector, all in Poonch district, for a brief period in the early hours of Sunday. The firing was mild in nature and lasted for a brief period without causing any harm, they added. On late Saturday as well, the Pakistan army had targeted Indian positions In Sunderbani sector of Rajouri district for several hours. There has been a spurt in ceasefire violations by Pakistan after India’s preemptive air strike on a Jaish-e-Mohammed terror camp in Balakot on February 26 following the February 14 Pulwama terror attack in which 40 CRPF personnel were killed.Four civilians, including three members of a family, were killed and several others injured as Pakistan targeted over 80 villages in more than 100 incidents of ceasefire violations along the LoC in the state since then. The frequent ceasefire violations have caused panic among the border residents, forcing authorities to close down educational institutions within five km radius from the zero line in the twin districts of Poonch and Rajouri as a precautionary measure. However, most schools reopened a few days back after the intensity of the cross-border firing decreased.last_img read more

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BMW 540i: Sports saloon reinvented

first_imgAfter having driven the 530d for a day, I was quite surprised that BMW would be moving in a direction so completely different from what it professes to be its DNA. While the 530d was everything one can ask for in a car, loaded to its gills with technology and rearing to go, it was devoid of the hair raising sportiness one would expect from a Bimmer. Agreed the days of the skull-rattling stiffness of suspension and arm numbing weight of the steering were well and truly gone starting from the sixth generation cars itself, but one expected the top-of-the-line diesel-engined car to be a bit wilder, to have a bit more bite, a bit more directness, a bit more edge and a bit more of the BMW character.The 540i also comes with the same 3-litre 6 inline engine but with upgraded power and torque output. So when I got behind the wheel of the 540i, I did not once imagine what I was letting myself in for. I did notice the M-Sport badging on the front fender despite its tiny size. The black 19-in alloy wheels shod with 245/40 R19 Michelin Primacy 3 rubber were a little hard not to notice though as was the M-sport badging on the steering wheel. The interiors were much more sporty than the 530d but I am sure we can have the diesel engined car with M-sport frills and goodies as well.What I also noticed was that the same inline 6-cylinder direct injection engine with a twin scroll turbocharger, fully variable valve control and variable camshaft timing on both cams belted out 340bhp which came in at 5500rpm and stayed for a full thousand rpm till 6500rpm.advertisementSteering warmer sits above the M-Sport logo. The heavens had opened up in Lisbon much like they do during the monsoons in Mumbai and the  mountainous roads were devoid of traffic. The engine let out a loud growl before letting loose on the road to the western-most point in Europe, Cabo de Roca.Starting with throttle response which is immediate and wholesome, the steering which is direct and well weighted, feeling much more like the hydraulic assisted units of yore, and the car which felt light and agile like a sports car, the experience of driving the 7th generation 5-series was totally changed from the tech laden beast of the day before.The interiors are just the same and the new app-based layout on the infotainment system is clearly visible. The huge heads-up display that felt reassuring felt overt and obtrusive and I had to shut it down. I switched off all assists and all the new fangled technology was asked to go to sleep and here was pure motoring from the evening before when I had driven the first three generations of the 5-series. Only that this was much much faster, much more involved and surprisingly as comfortable as the old cars. Not that the roads in Portugal are as bad as those in India but they are not as smooth as the German autobahns either and despite the ultra low profile rubber the car seemed to be riding really well. The beauty of the 540i is that despite the extra power, the car is more efficient than ever before and all the presentations of about how the 100kg lighter 7th gen car was more agile than before suddenly seemed to come true for the new 5-series. For the enhusiast, this has to be the car to wait for. VERDICTFor those interested in the true sporty BMW with added luxury, the 540i fits the bill. The lighter car is more agile and steering is direct thereby making it a driver’s car. Again, it too comes loaded with all the additional assistance systems but it seems BMW has got everything right with the 540i, while moving in the direction of comfort and luxury but retaining the core of the BMW DNA.Also Read:2017 BMW 530d first drive reviewlast_img read more

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TOUCH SA vs VICTORIA- THE BORDER CHALLENGE

first_imgVIC vs SA- OPEN BORDER CHALLENGE 3rd September: Touch SA vs Victoria Touch- `2005 Border Challenge’. In the drizzling rain the touch stars of long standing rival states South Australia and Victoria took to the fields last weekend to battle to be the 2005 Border Challenge Champions…. Last weekends Border Challenge saw South Australia and Victoria compete in the Men’s open, Women’s Open and Mixed Open divisions, vying for State supremacy as well as selection for the Crusaders teams (comprising Victoria, South Australia & Tasmania) to compete in the National Touch League in Coffs Harbour in March 2006. This year the 2005 Border Challenge was held in Mildura. The Border Challenge is a great opportunity to take elite level touch to the regional areas, and this weekend displayed the very best South Australia and Victoria has to offer. The games were held at the Mildura Senior College and greatly supported by representatives of the Mallee Touch Association in particular Luke Thornton with regard to facilities and field preparation. It was excellent to see members of the Mildura Touch Association come out and play a demonstration mixed game to show case the local talent. The stars from both South Australia and Victoria put on a display of tenacious defense, hot stepping attacking action, and of course, the games were played in the sportsmanlike manner one has come to expect in our sport. Through the miserable rain South Australia came out strong winning all three of the Men’s Open games and two games to one in the Women’s Open, while Victoria had a clean sweep in the Mixed Open division. As expected it was a tight encounter with most games only separated by one or two scores. Men’s Open South Australia (6) def Victoria (5) South Australia (5) def Victoria (4) South Australia (5) def Victoria (2) * 2005 Divisional Champions – South Australia Women’s Open South Australia (4) def Victoria (3) South Australia (3) def Victoria (2) Victoria (2) def South Australia (1) * 2005 Divisional Champions – South Australia Mixed Open Victoria (3) def South Australia (2) Victoria (5) def South Australia (3) Victoria (6) def South Australia (5) * 2005 Divisional Champions – Victoria ** 2005 Border Challenge Overall State Champions – South Australia ** The awesome display of talent made the task of choosing a `Player of the Series’ from each division very difficult. The following players were awarded `Player of the Series’ – Men’s Open – Colm Maguire (South Australia) Women’s Open – Sharon Gray (South Australia) Sharon Lai (Victoria) Mixed Open – Richard Morunga (Victoria) Congratulations to all the players that took part and a big thank you to Luke Thornton for everything he did in preparation for the 2005 Border Challenge. A special thank you to the following referee’s who were selected to represent at the 2005 Border Challenge Dave Ludlow, Jo Mitchell, Sean Judge, Chris Denison-Smith, Greg Frost, Indra Garner, Leigh Bryant, Miles Davine, Mike Gaskin, Stewart Freeman.last_img

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